Hazel (Corylus avellana)
The hazelnut also known as filbert or cob nut, has native species that are widespread over North America, Europe and Asia. The European hazels, are 3-4 m tall, with large thin shelled nuts. Hazelnuts are fairly shallow rooted and do well in a range of well-drained soils from sand to clay loams. It is hardy to zone 4 and is frost tender. It is in flower from January to April, and the seeds ripen from September to October.
The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is self-fertile.
Wild hazels will help pollinate all hybrid cultivars, but if none in hedgerow pollinators are necessary. Kentish Cob is pollinated by Gunslebert, Cosford Cob and Hallís Giant; Gunslebert is pollinated by Cosford Cob; Butlerís is pollinated by Ennis and Hallís Giant; Ennis is pollinated by Butlerís and Hallís Giant; Cosford Cob is pollinated by Gunslebert, Hallís Giant and Kentish Cob. Cosford Cob has always been advised as best pollinator for all nuts.
Best sown as soon as it is harvested in autumn in a cold frame. Germinates in late winter or spring. Stored seed should be pre-soaked in warm water for 48 hours and then given 2 weeks warm followed by 3 - 4 months cold stratification. Germinates in 1 - 6 months at 20įc. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame or sheltered place outdoors for their first winter.
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils, but is in general more productive of seeds when grown on soils of moderate fertility. It does less well in rich heavy soils or poor ones. Does well in a loamy soil. Very suitable for an alkaline soil, but it dislikes very acid soils. Succeeds in a pH range 4.5 to 8.5, but prefers a range of 5 to 7
When kept in a cool place, and not shelled, the seed should store for at least 12 months
88-BS - Nuts of 88-BS are close to perfect. The shape of the medium-sized nuts is almost round, shell is uniformly thin. Color is medium brown with a faint stripe. The kernel is perfectly clean, light colored, but one notch behind 88-Q in plumpness. Nuts ripen the third week of September and fall readily from the short, open husks.
89-LISA - Good producer of nuts that can ripen by mid-September. Nuts can be easily shaken from the open husks. Kernel are light colored and clean and are easily cracked form the paper-thin shells. The upper medium sized nuts are light with a faint stripe. The only apparent weakness is that the nuts are moderately elongated in shape. This should be no problem for in-shell sales.
A pellicola bianca -
Barcelona - Long-time No.1 variety. Grown as15 ft. bush. Winter bloom is hardy to15 degrees. Ripe early fall. Needs constant soil moisture and, in hot climates, afternoon shade. 800 hours. Pollinated by any other filbert except Ennis.
Butler - VPollenizer for Barcelona and Ennis. Better producer than Daviana, bigger nut. 15x15 bush. Needs constant soil moisture and, in hot climates, afternoon shade. 800 hours. Pollinated by any other filbert.
Buttner's Zellernuss -
Casina - Superior new filbert variety, recommended for backyard plantings. Thin-shelled small nut of excellent flavor. Heavy producer - more productive than Barcelona. Originated as chance seedling in Spain. 800 hours. Pollenizer required - interfruitful with all other common filbert varieties.
Contorta - Henry Lauders Walking Stick - A large shrub (Vis. 1)with twisted and
contorted stems and
Corabel - Recent French selection. Vigorous upright bush, producing heavy crops of good-quality nuts.
Cosford - A medium-size thin-shelled nut with a sweet flavour. An upright fairly vigorous hardy tree, it bears reliably and produces abundant pollen which makes it a good pollinator for other cultivars
Du Chilly -Fine-flavored, long-shaped nut ("hazelnut"). Not as productive as other varieties. Excellent choice if quality is more important than quantity. Constant soil moisture, afternoon shade. 800 hours. Pollinated by any other filbert.
Duke of York -
Ennis - Biggest nut, biggest crops. Winter bloom hardy to 15 degrees above zero. Early fall harvest, 1-2 weeks later than Barcelona. 15xl5 bush. Constant soil moisture, afternoon shade. 800 hours. Pollinated by Daviana or Butler.
EMOA 1 - A recent selection with very large round nuts. Tree very productive and disease resistant.
G-14 - A good producer of large, slightly elongated nuts. Shells are thin and kernels are clean and well developed. Husks are flared and open and cover about 2/3 of the nuts. Ripening is in late September. G-14 is resistant to bud mite and has never been infected by hazel blight after 8 years of exposure. Tests have shown that Grand Traverse in an effective pollinator for G-14.
G-17 - Good producer of high quality, medium-sized nuts. Kernels are well developed and light colored. Nut shape is almost round. Nuts ripen in mid-September and fall free of the husk. Trees are resistant to bud mite and relatively resistant to hazel blight. One small blight lesion has been found on it after 8 years of exposure. 89 BI can be pollinated by Grand Traverse.
G-22 - Nuts of this variety are medium-sized and almost round. Shell is thin, kernel are very plump, light colored, and free of adhering tissue. Nuts are mature and can be easily shaken down by mid-September. It appears to be a good producer, but no firm data exists.
Gellatly's Perfection - Early. Another fine variety, the nuts resembling the Victory so closely that they can be mixed with them for marketing. These two varieties, with their large, pale, straw-colored nuts of the highest quality, are just the thing for the fancy trade.
Grand Traverse - Formally 81C was introduced by Cecil Farris of Lansing, Michigan. It was a controlled cross of Faroka and Royal. The nut is dull brown and almost round in shape, The thin shell and plump, light colored kernel combine to produce a kernel weight/total weight ratio of 51%. Kernel flavor is excellent. The tree has grown in lower Michigan for ten years and is vigorous and winter hardy. Ripening date is a little later than average. The kernel quality is equal to, or better than anything available.
Gunslebener Zellernuss - A hardy productive cobnut with a distinctive flavour
Gustav's Zellernuss - German selection, does well in Holland. Vigorous, upright, yields heavy crops of good quality nuts.
Hall's Giant - Very prolific, hardy, vigorous variety producing large cobnuts
Hempelov Zellsky -
Heterophylla - This cultivar has attractive cut leaves. It has not been bred for its seeds but these are borne prolifically in a Gloucestershire garden
Heynick's Zellernuss -
Kent Cob - The largest fruiting cob nut. Most productive.
Kerasund Dlinnyi -
Lang Tidlig Zeller - Nuts small-medium size, kernel golden brown, thick shelled. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading, leggy. Origin: Germany.
Lange Landsberger -
Noonsack - Pacific coast variety. This is a very prolific variety, bearing a good-sized free-falling nut. Makes a good pollenizer for the Du Chilly.
Nottingham - A medium-size nut with a sweet well-flavoured kernel. It ripens early. A small tree, it crops very well and is useful as a pollinator
Pauetet - Spanish selection which does well in Holland. Upright bush which gives very high yields of nuts.
Segorbe - High yielding French variety with large nuts; a good pollinator
Sickler's Zellernuss - The foliage is burgundy at first, turning bronze. The pinkish colored catkins are produced in early spring
Tonda di Giffoni - Mid-late season. Nuts large, round, thin shelled, kernel light brown, excellent flavour. Husk length medium. Tree moderate to high yielding. Male flowers abundant.
Tonda Gentile delle Langhe -
Triumph - Early. A fine commercial nut, not as showy as the other two. Color of nut dark brown, large, long, slightly flattened. Medium-thin shell. Kernels not as clean as some, but still a good marketable nut. Heavy cropper.
Truchsess' Zellernuss -
Waterloo - A small nut with an excellent flavour
Webb's Prize Cob - Mid season. Nuts large, roundish, borne in large clusters. Tree moderately vigorous, spreading. Useful as productive windbreak. Bronze leaves.
Weschcke TP-3 -
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