Common Walnut (Juglans regia)
Also commonly called Persian walnut, English walnut, Carpathian walnut and California walnut
Common walnuts are partially self pollinating. To assure a full crop, two or more trees are needed
The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in individual deep pots in a cold frame. You need to protect it from mice, birds, squirrels etc. The seed usually germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their permanent positions in early summer and give some protection from the cold for their first winter or two.
Requires a deep well-drained loam and a sunny position sheltered from strong winds. Prefers a slightly alkaline heavy loam but succeeds in most soils. The walnut tree is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of 31 to 147cm, an annual temperature in the range of 7.0 to 21.1°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.2
Dry Common Walnuts within 24 hours of harvesting. They
are usually dried in the shell but will dry faster if shelled first.
Screen-bottomed trays will give good ventilation and encourage drying. The best
temperatures for drying are between 95 and 105 deg F. With this procedure Common
walnuts will dry adequately in 3 to 4 days.
Except for Chinese chestnuts, all nuts discussed in
this publication are high in oil. They store best if nut meats are extracted,
placed in an air-tight container and frozen, because oils turn rancid more
rapidly at higher temperatures. Frozen nuts may be kept for several years or
longer without loss of quality. The next best way to store nuts is to shell them
and keep them in air-tight containers in the refrigerator.
Aconcagua - Chile walnuts
Adams - California variety
Albigowa - Polish variety
Ali Kaghazi - Iranian variety
Allegheny - Carpathian from a Pennsylvania breeding program. Very nice medium-sized nut, well filled with superior cracking qualities (thin shell, well sealed, cracks easily). A late vegetative variety. Very cold hardy to zone 5
Alsószentiváni 117 (A-117) - circa 1950 Hungarian, Outstanding growth, hardy, early into production. Prolonged time to harvest, from mid September to early October. Resistant to diseases.
Ambassador - Cold hardy Carpathian hybrid for severe climates, from Idaho. 11/4 inch nuts, thin shell, well sealed. Plump, light-colored kernels, excellent flavor. Young trees set heavy crops. 600 hours. Self-fruitful.
Amigo - Grown in California, also in France, Italy and Turkey. Argentina's largest produce nuts (36-38 mm). Needs a warm climate.
Apollo - A Czech walnut. Early flowering with nuts ripening in the third week of September. Size is large 43-44 mm long, 37-39 mm wide.
AS 1 - Grown in Chile, very productive.
ASHLEY - 90% of lateral buds produce female ('pistillate') flowers, and therefore, potentially, nuts. Ashley matures it's nuts relatively early because it comes into leaf early. For this reason, it is not suitable for areas with heavy spring frosts. Like many early leafing Californian selections, it is extremely sensitive to being infected with walnut blight if it is rainy in spring and therefore not so suitable for humid areas. The kernel weight averages 5.3 grams, and the crack out averages 50%.
Ausiger - Russian variety, from the Caucasus.
Axel - Dutch variety. A large tree, flowering at the beginning of May. Moderate productivity. Very large nuts 5 cm
Bakshi - Indian walnut, with a very thin skin
Balaban - Turkish
Baldo - Spanish
Batcsekovo - ??
Bedco #1 - Large, very hardy, Carpathian walnut from George Dickum breeding program in Pennsylvania. It is renowned for its production and winter hardiness. Zone 5
Belnoot - Dutch variety. Bacteria-resistant.
Bijou - A french variety. Tree moderately strong. Moderate productivity. Fruit is large, skin is pretty tough, but nut is small. It produces early. Likes a cool, humus-rich soil.
Bilecik - Turkish variety.
Blegggiana - Italian
Bomba - French
Boniface 117-15 Below average growth. Large heavy crown. Very late flowering time. Harvest in October. Easy to break and clean.
Broadview - One of the heaviest bearing varieties. Medium to large nut has a thin shell 47% kernel. Kernels are best for culinary purposes. This is a good parent tree for breeding purposes. Broadview seedlings produced from cross-pollination with 'Hansen' have resulted in some superior cultivars. Lateral bearing.
Burton's - USA
Cacade - California variety
Carcagente Magoncból selected Spanish variety.
Caremo - French
Carmelo - Late-leafing and blooming, adapted to colder climate than Hartley or other popular English walnuts. Very large, well filled nut. 700 hours, can withstand colder winters than what the climate is in California. Self-fruitful and fragrant.
Carpathian (MESA) - Medium size nut, rich flavour, spreading growth habits with thin shell and good quality kernel, a very hardy strain of English walnut.
Cascade - The eastern half of the United States.
Cerdo - selected Spanish variety.
Cerreto - Italian walnut
Chaberte - French variety, in Central France. Grows in poorer soils.
Champion - A grafted cultivar that produces
medium-sized nuts. Nuts crack easily, and kernels are of good flavour and
quality. Trees usually begin to bear in six or more years.
Chase D9 - ??
CHINA-B - This is our largest nut in our nursery. They go 14 nuts per pound, with a thin shell thickness and large kernels. It matures on the 3rd week of September. This tree is very cold hearty to -34F. The nut free falls from husks with a rounded shape and also has a good shell seal. This variety has an upright tree form.
Chopaca - Very early into production
Coble 2 - This introduction from Pennsylvania is a very large oval nut, the size of a goose egg. It is lateral bearing. Nuts of this size are usually considered a novelty, because the large size shell is often poorly filled. This selection fills better than most and has a fine sweet flavour. It is hardy for the Niagara area and Southwestern Ontario.
Coen - Dutch variety, is grown in England. Strong-growing, large, majestic-looking tree. Early flowering in April. Large, long (5 cm nuts.
Colby - Medium size nut has a thin shell. It is early maturing, hardy, with a plump kernel and good flavour. It has self-fruitful flowers. Protandrous.
Cook's Giant Sweet - Very productive, mild flavours, very large nut, good nut for backyard use and a prolific grower, ripens in September. Zone 6
Concha - California variety
Concord - Slovenia
Corne du Perigord - Flower group A. Old French variety, still grown commercially. Late leafing and flowering. Bears medium sized nuts
Corsa - Canada, Ontario
Criollas - Spanish origin.
DANIELS - The tree bears heavily, the nut is thin shelled, medium sized, and cracks out at about 40% kernel.
Deszertnüj - From the North Caucasus, a Russian variety.
Drjanovski - Bulgarian variety, also grown in Slovenia and the Netherlands, India naturalization experiment. Nut is 36 mm, of very good taste.
DUBLIN'S GLORY- released in 1997. Selected from Carpathanian stock for its winter cold tolerance, but flowers early in spring, so it is not suitable for areas subject to late frosts. About 42% crack out. Nuts mature early, drop clean of the husk, and pretty much all drop about the same time.
Dusoljerij - Russian variety
Džinovski - Bulgarian
Ehrhardt - Early Californian variety
Elite - Slovenia
Escriva - selected Spanish variety.
Eszterháza 2 - A little sensitive to cold, harvest end of September-October with medium-large, attractive oval-shaped, pointed, bright colour nuts. The nuts have a thin skin, but nevertheless well-closed.
Fately - Canadian
Feltrina - Italian variety.
Ferjean - Flower group B. New French variety, lateral bearing, bearing very heavy crops at a young age. (Grosvert x Lara)
Fernette - Flower group A. New French variety, lateral bearing, moderately vigorous, good cropper, nuts large. (Franquette x Lara).
Fernor - Flower group B. New French variety, lateral bearing, moderately vigorous, very good cropper of large nuts. (Franquette x Lara).
FRANQUETTE - a late leafing old French variety, so it is good for areas with late spring frosts. Unfortunately, it is also late flowering which means it misses the pollen shed by other varieties, so nut set and yields are often poor. On the downside, from the home garden viewpoint, the tree is vigorous and spreading, slow to come into bearing, and Franquette is also a 100% terminal bearer. The nuts are large, and attractive. Kernel weight averages 5.2 grams, and crack out is about 46%. Franquette reputedly also has very high quality timber.
Gautheron - French variety
Geisenheimi - ??
Gerdouie Sanga Ghodeh Germez - Iranian
Gorgeous - Canada, Ontario
Greenhaven - Nut is medium to large, and early maturing. Nuts begin to drop about September first. The nuts fill well and have well-sealed shells. This is one of the better cultivars.
Grosjean (another name Grandjean) - French. Tree is large. Pretty soon turns into production. Good productivity. Early bloom. Fruit medium-large. Walnuts fragrant, white, easy to retrieve, store well.
Gustine - California variety
Hambleton HW1 - Canada, Ontario
HANSEN PERSIAN WALNUT - Probably the most widely grown of the cold tolerant english Walnut varieties. The original tree grew at Clay Center, Ohio, but it was thought to have originated in Germany. It has been successfully grown from Ontario to Georgia and Oklahoma. The Hansen nut is almost round, medium in size and with a paper thin shell. The kernel is light colored and mild in flavor. The kernel's total weight ratio can be as high as 65%. Ripening is in mid-September at Lansing, Michigan. Grafted Hansen trees sometimes produce pistillate blooms the first year and pollen blooms at about three to four years. It is a dependable, annual bearer. Hansen should be considered as a self-pollinating variety but it would set better crops if it had a late pollen. Anthracnose and husk maggot resistant, smaller tree than other Carpathians, about 30' high.
Harrison - Canada, Ontario was produced in the United States is the northern states. Nut large. Excellent quality. Fertile.
He - California, winter 700 hours. Tree is high. Produces when young, but needs plenty of room. Nuts big, sweet walnuts, good quality.Self fertile.
Helmle - ??
Henry - One of the selected trees that produces very
large nuts that is well sealed, fills well, and with very think shell that would
give anyone the bragging rights from now on. Very vigorous grower. Zone 5
Howe - California variety.
Idaho - Cold hardy carpathian-type. Large, sweet, high quality kernel. Bears young and heavy. Vigorous tree. 700 hours. Self-fruitful.
Jacobs - ??
Jardin de la Saint-Jean - French variety
Jupiter - produced in Czechoslovakia and Germany Nuts slightly wrinkled, brown, well-breakable, the taste is slightly sweet, dessert quality.
Kaghazi - Iranian
Kaiser - Nut has outstanding qualities and is one of the largest. This is a beautiful large nut that fills very well, seals good and tasted good. The tree also begins production at a young age. Kaiser was rated as the most outstanding Persian walnut at the 2000 Kentucky State Fair. This variety originated from a seedling grown by Richard Wilmoth in Kentucky.
Kaman 2, 3, 4, 5 - Older Turkish varieties.
Kasna - Slovenian
Killinger - Slovenian
Kisinyovszkij (Kisinevszkij I 33) - Moldova types
Kispál - Russian variety
Kosztyuzenszkij (24) - Moldova nuts.
Kubanszkij - Russian variety, on the north Caucasus. Nuts 31-32 mm
Kurmarker - German. Moderately strong growth, spreading crown. Not sensitive to frost, Nuts produced at the end of mid-September. Small to medium.
LAKE 1954 . It produces a few nuts even in very bad frost years and is highly recommended for Kentucky. Large nut, 50% kernel, very good quality. Precocious, good yielder, protogynous
Lake English - A grafted cultivar that bears at an early age (four or more years after planting). Nuts crack well. Best pollinated with Champion or a seedling Carpathian walnut.
Lara - Flower group B. Recent French variety, lateral bearing, good crops of large nuts borne in early season.
Lassigné - French variety.
LIVERMORE ENGLISH WALNUT - Looks like a regular English walnut from the outside of the shell. Crack it and the kernel inside is a striking red colour. Tastes like a regular walnut. Zone 6-9.
LOOKING GLASS WALNUT - This walnut is a large nut at 20 per pound, with light sweet kernels. It is cold hardy to -34F. The nuts are round in shape with very thin shell thickness. This variety is a high producer that matures the 3rd week of September.
Makouie - Iranian
Maramures (Magureni) - Romanian variety. The diameter of nut 34 mm.
Marben - French breed. Produces pretty, but the tendency to alternate years. Harvest early in September, medium to large-sized. The skin is fairly thin, fragile, mechanical damage. Walnuts very fine, but the quality is variable. Prolonged storage deteriorates rapidly.
Mars - Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic) variety. Poor growth. Slightly increased up to the crown. Late flowering, Nuts almost smooth, and a high yield. Can ne considered resistant to disease.
Maszlicsnüj - Russian variety
Mayette - Flower group B. Old French variety, very late to leaf out and flower. Bears medium to large nuts.
MCKINSTER OH 1952 Large, good quality nut; 48% kernel; self pollinating; heavy producer. Cracks easily
Mesa - From the University of New Mexico. Winter hardy, late-blooming. Large, well-sealed nuts are resistant to sunburn. Plump, light-colored kernels of good flavor. 700 hours. Self-fruitful.
Metcalfe - Metcalfe originates in the Rochester area of New York. It is a round, medium sized, thin shelled nut with 55% kernel. It is productive and early ripening. It is moderately resistant to blight.
Meylanaise - Flower group A. Old French
variety, bears good crops of medium sized nuts. Partly self-fertile.
Milotai 10 (M 10) - Hungarian, breed by Peter Szentiványi nuts medium-large diameter, 34-35 mm. It's easy to clean and breakable.
Milotai (M 10-9) - Hungarian, Peter Szentiványi selection. Crossed by 10 Milotai and Pedro. Moderate growth. Produces early, ripening time of mid-September. Nut large, 38-39 mm, thick-set, bright color, a nice smooth surface. Easy to break, clean. Very thin nutshell, can be a problem with intensive mechanical harvesting.
Milotai late (M 10-14) - The same as in the Breeding 10 M-9 variety. Very Productive, flowers very late. Fruit is very large, 38 mm, a nice, smooth surface. Although skin is a solid, easily breakable, clean.
M 10-25 Fajtajelölt - Productive equal to the Milotai variety. Fruit of medium size, flattened top spherical.
M 10-37 Milotai - Potentially one of best yielding variety. Tree growth below average. Nuts produced early-mid October. Fruit is large, attractive, bright-colored shell. Very unfavorable feature that is especially sensitive to bacteria.
14 Milotai - Nuts at the end of September-early October size 32 mm. Deep, good soil is required.
Jewell Myrtelford - occurred in Australia
NC-1 Canada, Ontario
Noix rouge (Red Walnut) - French variety
Northern California Black (Rootstock) - Deep rooting anchorage. Well drained sensitive to calcarious and saline soils. Less susceptible to crown gall.
No 16 (Number 16) - America, Netherlands and England, but also cultivated variety. The variety is similar to Rita, but stronger . Flowering very early, at the end of April, a lot of pollen is produced. Good production.
No 26 - Geisenheim-produced variety. Small, large crowns, flowers late in May with nuts beginning of October.
No 120 - Geisenheimben produced variety, also known as Mosel nuts. One of the best kind of German. Modest. Good soil is needed. Late flowering, nuts large, oblong, 37 mm. and well-sealed.
No 139 - Tree moderately strong growth, dense crowns.nuts are produced early, mid-September, medium-sized, nice-looking.
No 251 - Slovenia
No 286 - nuts produced early start of September, tastes good.
Parisienne - Flower group B. Old French
variety, late to leaf out and flower. Bears medium to large nuts.
PAYNE - a medium sized tree that can be pruned, as it is a lateral bearer (about
80% of flowers are from lateral buds). It is quite an old variety, and noted for
it's good productivity, although the nuts are only medium to small. Payne is
relatively early to mature it's nuts because it is an early leafer. Payne is not
suitable for areas with heavy spring frosts for this reason. It is also unsuited
to humid areas because it is very susceptible to walnut blight (Xanthomonas
juglandii) The seal between the two halves of the nut is good. Kernel weight
averages 5.2 grams, and crack out is 48%.
PERRY - Heavy bearer of large clusters, thin shell, and light kernel at 56% kernel. Cold hardness to 34F with no damage or winter died back. Lateral bearing, bears the third week of September, and will bear three years after planting. Good disease resistance.
Pervomajszkij - Russian variety
Pioneer - California variety
Plovdivski - Flower group B. Bulgarian variety, mid-leafing, good cropper, nuts of very good quality, large kernels.
Praeparturian - Perfect soft-shells of first quality, most productive. Nuts small to medium, ideal for home use. Tree starts to bear when young.
Profszajuznüj - Russian variety
Proslavski - Flower group B. Bulgarian variety, mid-leafing, bears good crops of large nuts with large kernels. Vigorous tree
Protoka - Russian variety
Reda - Nut medium size, thin shell, bears on lateral buds. The tree is hardy.
Rita - A small growing tree, it flowers earlier than most other varieties. Cropping prolifically, it is very hardy and self-fertile.
Ronde de Montignac - Flower groups A & B. An old French variety, very late to leaf out and flower. Bears medium-sized nuts. A good pollinator.
REX - (C 152) released in 1997 New Zealand. Selected for areas subject to late frosts. Late leafing and late flowering. Vigorous and very productive, the nuts are thin shelled, small, round and light coloured. The kernel is pale, smooth, sweet, mild, and pleasant. Crack out is about 45%. It is high in 18:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but low in vitamin E relative to other cultivars.
Roter Donaunuss - Austrian variety. Known in the Netherlands as Rode Donaunoot, and in England as Red Danube. A medium-sized, tree shape. Early flowering, nuts produced at the end of September. The nuts of medium size.
S-1 WALNUT - This is a high producer of medium - large nuts with light, sweet kernels. They mature the 4th week of September with a clean fall from husks. The shells are thin with a good seal. My 3 year trees produced 16 pounds of nuts per tree. This walnut is a fast growing tree with very good tree form.
Sauber Giant - Produces a very large nut that is similar to Kentucky Giant, fills well and is of good quality. The tree is very hardy and bears early. However, the tree begins growth early, is sensitive to frost and is recommended only on sites where frost is less of a problem.
Saturn - Flower groups A+B. Recent Czech variety, a regular good cropper, starts bearing early; nuts oval, thin shelled, good sweet flavour. Tree vigorous, spreading, part self fertile.
Sebeshelyi 44 (Sibisel 44) - Romania, Transylvanian type.
Sebi - Romanian
Seifertsdorfer Runde - 1949 German variety produced in the GDR. The leading German variety. Nuts are pleasant, sweet, good taste.
Sejnovo - Bulgarian variety.
Sexton - Precocious, harvests a week before Chandler and leafs-out a week before Chandler. Sexton has low blight scores and is 100% fruitful on laterals with abundant male and female flowers. Sexton is protandrous but the male overlaps most of the pistillate bloom. The nuts are relatively smooth and round with good seals and good strength. The kernels are light colored, easy to remove from the shell and at 8 grams make up more than 50% of the nut weight. Sexton has a densely branching canopy and will require substantial training and pruning of young trees to prevent overbearing. Potential pollenizers are Tulare and Chandler.
SHIAWASSEE WALNUT - The Shiawassee Walnut is a large and heavy nut that is bore two years from seed. Lateral bearing, clod hardness to 34F. Large clusters of well sealed shells, and light color kernel at 58% kernel. Disease resistance, bears the second week of September.
Skolnüj - Russian variety
SOMERS - The Somers Persian Walnut was grown and selected by the late Lee Somers of Perrington, Michigan. The seed the original tree grew from was collected in the Carpathian Mountains of Poland by P.C. Crath in the late 1930's. The nut is large, light colored, and has a very good shape. The tree has withstood 35F without damage. The nuts ripen in late August in Michigan. Somers is one of the best of the Carpathian Walnuts. It is also a late pollen shedder and can help Hansen pollinate its late pistillate blooms. Grafted trees bear in four to five years.
Sorrento - Italian variety, the most common Italian walnut. Strong-growing and reliable, ripening - Italian conditions - at the end of September. Nut medium-sized.
Szamosháti (Rotunda of Satu Mare) - Romania variety
Szlavjanszkij - Russian variety
Szovhoznüj - Russian variety
Sztavropolszkij osztronoszüj - Russian variety
S-1 - American variety, well suited for the winter. Fast-growing, well-shaped tree. Nuts at the end of September, medium-large, the shell is thin, well-closed.
Targoszyn 7 / 15, 8 / 1, 17/22 - Three types of polish
TEHAMA - A late leafing Californian cultivar that, although a lateral bearer (80% of lateral buds are female), and particularly easy to crack, has the disadvantage that the tree grows very big and its productivity is rather poor. It is perhaps best suited to 'country living' situations, rather than suburbia. Even although it is late season leafing Tehama is extremely sensitive to being infected with walnut blight if it is rainy in spring. It is therefore not so suitable for humid areas. Kernel weight is 6.7 grams, and crack out is 50%.
Tiszacsécse 2 (T-2) - Tree strong growing. Requires relatively low soil and site conditions, good growth, drought-resistant. Nuts small and medium-sized, 30-31 mm, hard shell. Easy to break, clean.
Tokat - Turkish variety.
Trajanovszkij - Russian variety
Urozsajnüj - Russian variety
UTAH GIANT UT. 1986. Very large nut; good quality; sweet kernel cracks out easily. Very hardy
Valencianas - Spanish variety
Weinsberg - German variety. Moderate growth. Crown small, spread, 7-8 m in diameter. Nuts large.
Welsch - This great walnut, extremely large and long in shape, comes from a part of Germany where the climate is very severe, and so may prove to be quite a valuable acquisition to our list of hardy walnuts. Thin shelled and rough in appearance. Anyone seeing this nut wants a tree of his own.
Wonder of Monrepos - Dutch variety
Yalova 1, Yalova 2, 3 Yalova, Yalova - 4 New Turkish varieties.
Youngs and Youngs - B4 Canadian B1, Ontario varieties of the seedlings from Broadview. Only moderately cold tolerant. The kernel is more sweeter than the Broadview's.
Yöntem - Turkish variety.
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